verona well field

TWP 10S RTE 07W SEC 32E 1/2

The Verona Well field is located in Battle Creek, Michigan. The well field is adjacent to the Battle Creek River, a railroad yard, a small residential area, and is also near industrial facilities. The site contamination impacted three aquifers over an area of approximately 160 acres. In 1981 and 1982, twenty-seven of the thirty Verona Well Field wells as well as 80 private residential wells were found to be contaminated by a number of volatile organic compounds, including benzene, dichloroethanes, dichloroethylenes, methylene chloride, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and vinyl chloride. The contamination threatens the drinking water supply for over 53,000 residents. The United Stated Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) determined that the sources of contamination were three 1-acre facilities. Two were used for storage, blending and containerization of solvents by the Thomas Solvent Company; one facility was a paint shop operated by the Grand Trunk Western Railroad. Soil and groundwater contamination had resulted from leakage from containers and underground storage tanks, spillage, and direct dumping. Site Responsibility U.S. EPA conducted or funded the following actions: in 1982 - 1984 emergency actions to provide bottled water to residents whose private wells were contaminated; in 1984 evaluation of actions to protect the City of Battle Creek water supply, initiation of operation of a line of city production wells to prevent groundwater contamination from contaminating the City's northern water supply wells, and installation of replacement production wells; from 1984 - 1996 State of Michigan operation of a blocking well system; 1984 - 1991 groundwater investigations to identify the sources, evaluate methods to cleanup soil and groundwater, and improve the blocking well system; 1988 - 1992 soil treatment by soil vapor extraction at one of the Thomas Solvent source areas; from 1988 - 2003 State operation of a groundwater pump-and treat system at this source area; and 2009 - present construction and operation of further soil vapor extraction enhanced by air sparging at this source area. The State took over responsibility for operation and maintenance of this source area pump-and-treat system on May 31, 2003. A group of private parties called the Verona Well Field Group (VWFG) and Grand Trunk, who may be responsible for the contamination conducted the following actions: in 1992-1994 soil treatment by soil vapor extraction at the other Thomas Solvent source area and at the Grand Trunk source area; in 1996 construction of a second line of blocking wells, and pump-and treat systems for the two source areas; 1996 - present operation and maintenance of the blocking well and two source area pump-and-treat systems; 2003 - 2004 construction of an expanded blocking system and improvements to the source area pump-and-treat systems; 2004 - present construction and operation of two source area air sparging systems . In April 2005, private parties entered an agreement with U.S. EPA to complete the soil treatment, and operate the groundwater treatment system until cleanup standards are achieved. The VWFG has also reimbursed a portion of the Federal costs.

Hazardous Ranking Score

47 / 100

A score of 28.5 or higher qualifies a site for the Superfund National Priority List.

Regional Contact

Region 5
Phone: (312) 353-2000

Contact Region



Site Inspection
Preliminary Assessment
Final Listing On NPL

Contaminants & Health Effects

      Endocrine Disrupter
      Reproductive Toxin
      Persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic


        African American
        American Indian and Alaska Native
        Native Hawaiian


        People living
        within a 1 mile radius


        Average Income


        Occupied homes

        Potentially Responsible Parties

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